Esperanto Primer (v2.0)2 min read

Esperanto Language
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The most useful site I have found to learn Esperanto is This is what I have been able to glean so far:

There are not exceptions to any grammar rules at all. Each letter is pronounced the same each time with no exceptions – very phonetic pronunciation.


The alphabet is sounded out just like English with a few new letters that, for me seem very Czech in nature (pronunciation is guidance is listed in brackets [ ]) :

a b c [ts] ĉ (ch) d e f g ĝ [j] h ĥ [ch] i j [y] ĵ [zh] k l m n o p r [rr] s ŝ [sh] t u ŭ [w] v z


Base Nouns end in ‘o’: libro – book

Sentence Objects end in n: libron – book

Make a noun plural by adding ‘j’ to the end: libroj – books

Adding ‘et’ at the end of a noun creates something smaller: libreto – booklet

Possession: ‘de’


Pronouns end in ‘i’:

Mi – I

Vi – You

Li – He

xSi – She

xGi – It

Ni – We

Ili – They

oni – indefinite pronoun


Base verbs end in ‘i’: doni – ‘to give’

Present tense verbs end in: ‘as’: donas – give

Past tense verbs end in: ‘is’: donis – gave

Future tense verbs end in: ‘os’: donos – will give

Conditional tense verbs end in: ‘us’: donus – would give

Command tense verbs end in: ‘u’: donu – Give! (implied subject you)

Estas – Am/is/are (present)

Estis – Was/Were (past)

Estos – ‘will be’ (future)


Adverbs are verbs that end in ‘e’: done – ?generously?


Base Adjectives end with ‘a’: bela – beautiful

Adding ‘mal’ to the beginning creates the negative: malbela – ugly

When describing the sentence object add an ‘n’ to the end: malbelan

Add ‘pli’ to magnify description one level: pli very beautiful

Add ‘plej’ to magnify description more : plej most beautiful

Comparison:‘ol’: this is bigger ‘than’ that

Articles and Other

La – the (no associated gender)

Accent – on second to last vowel
so I have revised and corrected my previous Esperanto Primer (v1.0) and here is the new one An Esperanto Primer (v2.0).

Let me know if there are any corrections or suggestions.

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